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国际竞赛命题大纲

A. General science skills 一般性的科学技能
As a general prerequisite the students should be familiar with and be able to

employ and explain scientific methods,

• use scientific terminology,

• put forward hypotheses,

• devise and accurately describe methods/experiments to test hypotheses,

• assess the validity of different sources of information and be aware that data might be inaccurate or even wrong,

• adequately represent data in tables, diagrams and graphs,

interpret data.

作为一般性的前提,学生应该要熟悉并且有能力能够:

采用和解释科学方法,

使用科学术语,

提出假设()

设计出、并且能准确地描述所采用的方法/实验,来检验假设()

评估不同来源资讯的有效性,并有资料可能不准确甚或错误的认知,

适度地以表格、图解、图示或图表来呈现,

诠释资料。

 

B. Content Knowledge in Natural Sciences and Mathematics 自然科学与数学的学科内容知识

1. Particles, waves and matter 粒子、波、以及物质

Matter is structured from the smallest particle to the size of the universe. The microscopic structure of matter is responsible for the features we observe macroscopically. The students should be aware of this structure and be familiar with the following concepts:

物质,由小至最小的粒子,大到宇宙所构成。物质的微观结构,是让我们能观察宏观世界、事物的一个指引与途径。学生们应该知道、了解这种结构,并熟悉以下的概念:

 

•What things are made of 事物是由甚么所构成(组成)

o Structure of particles and atoms 粒子与原子的结构

 (neutrons, protons, electrons, nature of bonding) (中子, 质子, 电子, 成键的本质 )

o Elements, isotopes and compounds 元素, 同位素与化合物

o Composition of molecules, chemical substances 分子与化学物质的组成

o Mixtures, colloids and suspensions 混合物,胶体(溶液),与悬浮液

• Periodic table - concept, organization and structure 周期表概念,组成与结构

•States of matter and its properties 物质的状态和其性质

o Solids, liquids, gases and plasmas - characteristics and differences 固体,液体,气体和等离子体 - 特性与不同之处

o Lattices as a special form of solid matter 晶格,一种特殊的固态物质型态

o Properties of matter物质的性质 (density, volume, electrical conductivity, insulators and conductors, elastic behavior, thermal expansion, (specific) heat capacity, defining properties of metals, non-metals, alloys密度,体积,电传导性,绝缘体与导体,弹性行为,热膨胀性,比热, 定义金属、非金属、与合金的性质 )

o Phase transitions and their influence on the properties of matter相变以及其对物质性质所带来的影响 (latent heat, phase diagrams, change of volume and density潜热,相图,体积与密度的改变 )

o Water and its different phases  水,以及其各种不同的水相

• Waves

o Frequency, wavelength, speed of propagation and its relation 频率,波长,传播的速度以及其相关性

o Difference between transversal and longitudinal waves 横向与纵向波之间的区别

o Superposition of waves 波的叠合

o Classical Doppler effect 古典都普勒效应

• Sound声音 (Sound as longitudinal pressure wave, perception of sound作为纵向压力波,对声音的知觉 )

• Light

o Wave and particle interpretation of light 解释光的波与粒子二象性

o Propagation and speed of light in vacuum and media, refractive index 在真空与介质中光的传播与速度,折射率

o Connection between wavelength and color, electromagnetic spectrum 波长与颜色之间的关联,电磁频谱

o Reflection and refraction of light at mirrors and lenses光在镜子与镜片中的反射与折射 (angle of incident and reflected beams, Snell’s law, total internal reflection 入射角,反射光束,司乃耳定律,全内反射 )

o Formation of images with mirrors and lenses透过镜子与镜片的成像 (focal length, thin lens formula, magnification, magnifying glasses, microscopes, telescopes, glasses 焦距,薄透镜公式,放大率,放大镜,显微镜,望远镜,镜片 )

 

2. Energy 能量()

Energy is essential in our everyday life as energy conversion is the reason for many dynamical phenomena in our world. Energy is therefore one of the main concepts in science. The students are expected to know about the following topics:

能量()是日常生活中所必须与必要的,因为能量转换是我们世界中许多动力现象的原因。因此,能量是许多科学主要概念中的其中一个。学生们被期望要知道了解以下的主题:

• Nature of energy and energy conservation 能量的本质与节能

• Various forms of energy 各种形式的能量 (bonding energy, kinetic energy, potential energy, heat, activation energy, energy stored in a spring ()能,动能,位()能,热能,活化能,弹簧的储能)

• Transfer of energy 能量的转移(传递) (e.g. mechanisms of heat transfer, transfer of energy via waves :热传导()机制,透过波的能量转移)

• Energy conversion / transformation and its efficiency 能量的转换以及其效率 (e.g. conversion between potential and kinetic energy, bonding energy and temperature or the loss of energy to the environment by radiation : 位能与动能间的转换,键能与温度或环境中因辐射造成的能量损失)

• Sources of energy能量的来源 (e.g. for animals, plants, societies and engines. Fossil and renewable energy sources : 动物,植物,社会以及引擎。化石与可再生能源的来源)

• Power 功率 (e.g. muscular power, power output of engines or stars, power dissipation in resistors : 肌瞬发力,引擎或星体的输出功率,电阻器中的功率散逸(消耗))

 

3. Interactions 互动

Conversion of energy and our perception of the world around us are only possible due to interactions. The students should know about and be able to work with the following concepts:

透过互动,才有可能产生能量的转化,以及我们对环绕我们的世界产生知觉或感受。学生们应该要了解知道并且有能力能够处理以下的概念:

• Forces

o Nature of forces and types of forces 力的本质与力的种类 (gravitational force, electrostatic force, magnetic force, static and dynamic frictional forces, buoyancy, Van-der-Waals force重力,静电力,磁力,静与动摩擦力,浮力,凡德瓦尔力)

o Mass and weight, centre of mass 质量与重量,质量中心(质心)

o Newton’s laws, inertial systems 牛顿定律,惯性系统

o kinematics of a point mass: linear and circular motion 点质量运动学: 线性与圆周运动 (position, speed, acceleration, angular frequency, centripetal force, Kepler’s laws, movement of the earth around the sun 位置,速度,加速度,角频率,向心力,克普勒定律,地球绕太阳运动 )

o Momentum and change of momentum 动量与动量的变化 (linear momentum, elastic and inelastic collisions, conservation of momentum in closed systems 线性动量,弹性与非弹性碰撞,封闭系统内的动量守恒 )

o Levers 槓杆

o Elastic forces, Hooke’s law and simple harmonic motions 弹力,虎克定律与简谐运动

o Pressure 压力(atmospheric pressure, static pressure in liquids大气压力,液体的静压力 )

• Electric, magnetic and gravitational fields 电场,磁场与重力场。

• Type of chemical bonding - nature, structure and strength 化学结合的种类- 本质,结构与力度 (covalent and ionic bonds, hydrogen bonding and van-der-Waals interaction 共价键与离子键,氢键与凡德瓦尔作用 )

• Chemical Reactions 化学反应

o Chemical equations - balancing and stoichiometry 化学反应式 平衡与计量法

o Types of chemical reactions 化学反应的种类 (acid/base neutralizations, redox reactions, thermal decompositions 酸碱中和,氧化还原反应,热分解 )

o Basic and most common reactions for determination of unknown substances 测定未知物质的基本与最常见的反应

o Rate of reactions, factors affecting reaction rate like catalysts, temperature and concentration 反应速率,影响反应速率的因素如催化剂,温度与浓度

o Dynamic equilibrium and Le Chatelier’s principle 动态平衡与勒沙特列原理

o Common ion effect 普通的离子反应

• Diffusion, osmosis and surface tension 扩散,渗透与表面张力

• Principle of thin layer and paper chromatography 薄层层析与滤纸层析原理

• Effects of radiation on organisms 辐射对生物(有机体)所产生的影响(辐射效应)

• Forms of communication 通讯的形式 (e.g. function of hormones and pheromones in living organisms:活的生物(有机体)的荷尔蒙与费洛蒙的功能)

 

4. Structure, properties and functions 结构,性质(属性)与功能

The different constituents of a system usually have specific properties which allow them to fulfill their function in the intended way. The students should know the structure of the following components and understand in which way they fulfill their functions

一个系统中不同的构成物(成分)通常各自拥有特定的性质(属性),使得他们能够以预期的方式来执行与达成他们的功能。学生们必须要知道以下组成物(成分)的结构,以及他们透过甚么方式来执行并达成他们的功能

 

• Cells 细胞

o Basic structure of cells and its constituents 细胞的基本结构与其组成物(成分)

o differences between animal, plant cells and bacteria 动、植物细胞与细菌的不同之处

o Basic concepts of the biochemistry of molecules - carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids 分子生物化学的基础概念碳水化合物,蛋白质,脂质与核酸

 

• Parts of the body 身体的各部

o Anatomy and function of main organs and tissues in animals and humans (lung, heart, kidney, liver, digestive system, sensory organs , skin, blood) 动物与人类身体中主要器官与组织的解剖与功能 (肺,心, 肾, 肝, 消化系统, 感官,皮肤,血液 )

o Properties of muscles 肌肉的性质(属性)

• Homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts 均相与非均相催化剂

• Acids and bases 酸与碱

o Properties of acids and bases 酸与碱的性质(属性)

o pH values and neutralization  PH值与酸碱中和

o Indicators 指示剂

o Formation and effect of acidic rain 酸雨的形成与其所产生的影响

o Electrolysis 电解 (migration of ions, Faraday constant, electrochemical cells 离子的迁移,法拉第常数,电化电池 )

 

5. Systems 系统

Things in life are organized in open or closed systems. It is therefore important to not only look at the components of a system and its interdependencies but also at the system as a whole. The students should be able to employ the concepts of

生命中的事物是由开放或封闭的系统所组织形成的。因此,重要的是,不仅要观察了解系统的组成物以及其相互依赖性;同时,也要把系统视为一个整体。学生们应该要能够运用的概念包括

• Continuity principles in closed systems/cycles 在封闭系统/循环中的连续性原理

• Equilibriums 平衡 (e.g. of forces, chemical/ionic equilibrium, thermo dynamical equilibrium, ecosystems in equilibrium : 力平衡,化学/ 离子平衡,热动力平衡,生态平衡 )

• Scales of nature 自然的规模 (e.g. in biological systems, astrophysics : 在生物系统,天体物理学 )

• Basic concepts about cycles in nature自然界中循环的基本概念 (carbon cycle, water cycle, Nitrogen cycle, oxygen cycle, ozone cycle, renewable and non-renewable natural resources, earth’s climate 碳循环,水循环,氮循环,氧循环,臭氧循环,可再生与不可再生的自然资源,地球的气候 )

• Ecology 生态

o Levels of organization in the biosphere 生物圈中的组织层级

o Factors affecting ecosystems 影响生态系统的因素 (abiotic and biotic 无生命与有生命的)

o Interactions between organisms 生物(有机体)的互动 (e.g. competition, predation, mutualism: 竞争,掠夺补食行为,互利共生)

o Producers, consumers and decomposers 生产者,消费者与分解者

o Food chains, food webs 食物链,食物网

o Basic principles of conservation of biodiversity 维持(保存)生物多样性的基本原则

o Factors affecting growth of populations, typical growth-curves for populations 影响人口成长的因素,典型的人口成长曲线

• Pollution effects of different modes of power generation 不同型式的发电系统所产生的污染效应

• Organisms as systems 生物(有机体)系统

o Transformation of matter and energy in organisms 生物(有机体) 中物质与能量的改变与转化

o Basic knowledge of digestive, circulatory, respiratory, excretory, nervous, immune and endocrine systems 消化,循环,呼吸,排泄,神经,免疫与内分泌系统的基本知识

• Plant physiology 植物生理学

o Respiration and exchange of gases 呼吸与气体的交换

o Absorption by roots, diffusion, osmosis 根部的吸收,扩散作用,渗透作用

o Photosynthesis 光合作用。

o Tropism of plants 植物的向性

• Electric Circuits 电路

o Components of circuits 电路的组成 (resistors and wires, bulbs, voltage sources, Ammeters, Voltmeters, capacitors 电线与电阻,灯泡,电压来源,安培计(电流表),电压计(伏特计),电容器 )

o Ohm’s law, charge, current, voltage 欧姆定律,电荷,电流,电压(伏特数)

o Series and parallel circuits, Kirchhoff’s laws 串联与并联,基尔霍夫定律

o Difference between AC and DC currents/voltages 直流与交流电/伏特的不同

o Qualitative knowledge of electromagnetic induction and Lenz’s law 电磁感应与冷次定律的量化知识

o Basic principles of generators and motors 发电机与马达的基本原理

• Thermo dynamical systems 热动力学系统 ((absolute) temperature, ideal gas law, isothermal, isochoric and isobaric processes, Hess’s law, combustion cycles (绝对)温度,理想气体定律,等温、等容及等压过程,赫士定律,燃烧循环 )

• Astrophysical systems 天体物理系统 (main characteristics of stars, planets, moons, comets, asteroids, solar systems, galaxies 恒星,行星,月亮,彗星,小行星,太阳系,银河系的主要特征 )

 

6. Development and Evolution 发展与演化

Living organisms are not static and undergo constant change and adaption. The students are expected to show proficiency in the following areas:

活着的生物体(有机体)并非静态的,而是不断在做经常性的变化与适应。学生们被期望要在以下的领域范畴中展现:

• Strategies of environmental adaptation 环境适应的策略 (characteristics of adaptation, structural, physiological and behavioral adaptation 适应的特征,结构性、生理性与行为性的适应 )

• Theory of evolution 演化理论 (natural selection, neo-Darwinian revolution, evidence of evolution 自然选择(天择),新达尔革命,演化的证据 )

• Cell cycle and cell division 细胞循环与细胞分裂 (basic principles of meiosis, mitosis, haploidy and diploidy减数分裂,有丝分裂,单倍体与双倍体的基本原理 )

• Reproduction in humans, animals and plants 人类,动物与植物的生殖(繁殖)

o principles of creation of new life 创造新生命的原理

o human reproductive organs and sex cells 人类生殖器官与生殖细胞

o changes that take place in boy's and girl's bodies during puberty 发生在青春期男女身体上的变化

o basic principles of plant reproduction 植物生殖的基本原理 (asexual and sexual 无性与有性生殖 )

o basic knowledge of the development of fetus during pregnancy 怀孕期间胚胎发展的基本知识

• Genes, chromosomes and genetics 基因,染色体与基因工程学 (Mendel’s laws, mutations, inheritance of genetic characteristics 孟德尔定律,突变,基因特征的遗传 )

• Diseases 疾病

o cause and transmission of diseases疾病的产生与传染 (microorganisms causing common diseases, viruses, genetic defects 微生物所导致的常见疾病,病毒,基因缺陷() )

o immune systems 免疫系统

o principles of vaccination 预防接种的原则

o antibiotics such as the penicillin group 抗生素如盘尼西林(青霉素)

 

7. Mathematics skills 数学的能力

The emphasis of the tests should be on natural sciences. Nevertheless mathematics is an indispensable tool to the natural sciences. The students should therefore know about and be able to make use of equations involving

测验所要强调的应该是自然科学。然而,对自然科学而言,数学的运用是一个不可或缺的工具。学生们因此应该要知道并且有能力能够运用与使用的方程式包括

• equations involving

o fractions 分数

o logarithms and exponential functions 对数与指数函数

o powers and roots 次方与方根

o polynomials 多项式 (e.g. solving quadratic equations : 解二次方程式)

o trigonometric functions 三角函数

• transformations of equations to obtain linear relations 变换方程式以获得线性关系

• plots of functions 函数的绘制图

• simple geometry 简易几何学 (geometry of triangles and circles, areas and volumes of basic planar forms and solids 三角与圆形的几何学,基本平面形状与立体图形的面积与体积 )

• basic vector algebra 基础向量代数 (decomposition and addition of vectors 向量的分解与加法)

• simple statistics 简易统计学 (mean values, standard deviations, basic notion of probabilities 平均值,标准差,机率的基本概念)

• error estimation 误差估计 (by means of standard deviation or Min-Max analysis, difference between accuracy and precision 借由标准差或极小化极大分析,正确与精确的不同 )

• rounding of numbers and representing data with the proper number of digits / significant figures 数字的四舍五入以及用适当的位数 / 有效的位数来表示资料

 

C. Laboratory Skills 实验室技能

The content knowledge and general science skills part of the Syllabus provide the basis for all the experimental problems. In addition the students should be familiar with laboratory work. They should in particular be able to

本大纲中部分的学科内容知识与一般性科学技能,提供了所有实验方面试题的准则。除此之外学生们应该要熟悉实验室工作。他们特别应该要能够:

• work in the laboratory following safety regulations 在实验室工作时遵守安全规范

• employ basic techniques for measuring the quantities mentioned in part B 使用基本技术来测量B部分所提到各种的数据与量

• make observations using the five senses 使用五个感官作观察

• identify and use basic laboratory equipment 能够识别与使用基本实验设备

• use more sophisticated equipment if proper instructions are given 若在适当的指示给予下,使用更精密的设备器材

• collect data from an experiment being aware that instruments affect measurements 知道工具会影响测量当由一个实验中收集资料

• identify error sources and estimate their effects 找到误差来源并估计他们所带来的影响